The Maya Codex of Mexico (MCM)

The Maya Codex of Mexico (also known as the Grolier Codex) was discovered in the mountains of Chiapas in 1964. The following year, Mexican collector Dr. Josué Sáenz traveled with two men on a small plane to a remote airstrip in the foothills of the Sierra Madre near Tortuguero in Tabasco state to view and purchase the item. Later, Sáenz consulted Mayan expert, Dr. Michael Coe, to analyze the codex and display it at New York City's Grolier Club in 1971. Since that time, the authenticity of the codex has been confirmed by numerous specialists in Maya studies. In 2018, the National Institute for Anthropology and History in Mexico demonstrated conclusively that the document dates to the period between 1021 and 1154 CE. As a result, the document is now believed to be the oldest surviving codex from Mexico and the oldest book of the Americas

The discovery and confirmation of the Maya Codex of Mexico is very important because it is one of only four pre-conquest Mayan codices to survive. During the Spanish Conquest of Mexico, the Spanish Bishop of the Yucatan, Catholic Friar Diego de Landa, carried out an auto de fay at the city of Mani in which he oversaw the burning of priceless Maya codices and religious items because they were seen as heretical, anti-Christian works.

Since the first appearance of the Maya Codex of Mexico, several independent Mayanists have concluded that the book fragment is a portion of a 20-page Venus almanac. This conclusion was reached because the codex shares the same basic calendrical structure as the Dresden Codex another pre-conquest Mayan Codex.

The Dresden Codex divides the 584-days cycle of Venus into four sections that mark the rising and disappearance of planet in the sky, with each section representing a different God. The Mayan calendrical astronomers made sure to align and coordinate cycles of time to create a greater cycle period. For example, if the Venus cycle of 584-days aligns with the 360-day cycle and the 260-day lunar cycle, then after two calendar rounds which are 52 years each, the cycle repeats. This, in fact, is the basis for the Venus calendars found in both the Dresden Codex and the Maya Codex of Mexico.

Even though the Maya Codex of Mexico is not complete, it provides insight into Mayan history in the post classic era. It also shows us that Venus was more than just a planet. Its movements were well understood and held significant cultural importance, especially in warfare.